Monday, April 21, 2008

Flora Foutain

View-Flora Fountain
Flora Fountain is a stone fountain situated in Fort business district in the heart of South Mumbai. Flora Fountain was built in 1864. The fountain depicts the Roman goddess Flora. It is now a heritage structure. It was built at a total cost of Rs. 47,000, or 9000 pounds sterling, a princely sum in those days.
It was erected by the Agri-Horticultural society of Western India out of a donation of Rs 20,000 by Cursetjee Fardoonjee Parekh. Designed by R. Norman Shaw, it was sculpted in imported Portland stone by James Forsythe. It now wears a white coat of oil paint.
Flora Fountain was originally to be named after Sir Bartle Frere, the governor of Bombay at the time. However, the name was changed before the fountain was unveiled. It stood at the approximate center of town.

View-Hutatma Chowk
The square in which the fountain stands was officially named in 1960 as Hutatma Chowk( refer to page titled as Sanyukta Maharashtra Samiti) (Martyr's Square).

Sanyukta Maharashtra Samiti

Sanyukta Maharashtra Samiti
Sanyukta Maharashtra Samiti was an organisation that spearheaded the demand, in the 1950s for the creation of a separate Marathi-speaking state out of the (then bilingual) State of Bombay(refer toBombay Presidency) in western India. The organisation was founded on February 6, 1956 under the leadership of Keshavrao Jedhe in Pune. The prominent activists of Sanyukta Maharashtra Samiti were late Mr.Acharya Atre, late Mr. Prabodhankar Thackeray, late Mr. Senapati Bapat and late Mr. Shahir Amar Shaikh among others. Acharya Atre criticised Jawaharlal Nehru, Morarji Desai (then chief minister of Bombay) and S.K. Patil (a prominent MP from Ghodapdev, Mumbai) through his firebrand editorials in Maratha.
The Indian National Congress had pledged to linguistic states prior to Independence. However after Independence, Nehru and Patel were adamantly opposed to linguistic states. They perceived linguistic states as threat to the integrity of India. For the first time and perhaps the only time, RSS and its chief Golwalkar Guruji supported Nehru and Patel against redrawing of the map along linguistic lines. The catalyst to creation of State Re-organization commission was fasting death of Telegu nationalist Sriramlu Potti. In 1956, the SRC (States Re-organisation Committee) under pressure from Nehru/Patel recommended creation of linguistic states of AP, Kerala, Karnataka, but recommended a bi-lingual state for Maharashtra-Gujarat, with Mumbai as its capital. To add insult to injury (for Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti), they recommended creation of Vidharba state to unite the Marathi speaking people of former Hyderabad state with Holkar's Nagpur state. This lead to creation of Sanyukta Maharashtra Samiti which was previously called Samyuka Maharashtra Parishad. Its inauguration on November 1, 1956, caused a great political stir and, under the leadership of Keshavrao Jedhe, an all-party meeting was held in Pune and Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti was founded on February 6, 1956. In the second general election the Samiti defeated the stalwarts of Congress by securing 101 seats out of 133, including 12 from Mumbai. The Congress could form a government only with the support of Gujarat, Marathwada and Vidarbha. Yeshwantrao Chavan replaced Morarji Desai as the Chief Minister of the bi-lingual Bombay State.
S.M. Joshi, S.A. Dange, N.G. Gore and P.K. Atre, Prabodhankar Thakrey fought relentlessly for Samyukta Maharashtra, even at the cost of sacrificing the lives of several people and finally succeeded in convincing Congress leaders that Maharashtra should form a separate state. The resignation of C.D. Deshmukh, the then Finance Minister of the Nehru Cabinet, had its salutary effect.
In January 1956, demonstrators were fired upon by the police at Flora Foutain in the capital city of Mumbai (Bombay). Flora Fountain was subsequently renamed Hutatma Chowk or "Martyr's Crossroads" in their memory. It is estimated that the 105 people were shot dead by security forces. This was then only second to the Jalianwala Bagh shooting in terms of casualties. Morarji Desai, who was the then chief minister of Bombay state was later removed and replaced by Y.B. Chawan as a result of criticism related to this incident.
Hutatma Chowk and behind visible is flora fountain
The Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti achieved its goal on May 1, 1960 when the State of Bombay was partitioned into the Marathi-speaking State of Maharashtra. However, Goa (then a Portuguese colony), Belgaum, Karwar and adjoining areas which were also the parts of the Maharashtra envisioned by the Samiti, were not included in Maharashtra state. Belgaum district, which has a majority Marathi population, is still in dispute.

Bombay Presidency

Map & bunglow of the Governor, Bombay Presidency

During British rule portions of the western coast of India under direct British rule were part of the Bombay Presidency. In 1937, the Bombay Presidency became a province of British India. Bombay Presidency was comprised of the three British divisions or commissionerates i. e. the northern, the southern, and the Sindh divisions with the following 24 districts:-- Bombay, Ahmedabad,KairaMahals, Broach, Surat, Tanna, Kolaba, Khandesh, Nasik, Ahmadnagar, Belgaum, Kanara. Dharwar, Kaladgi, Pune, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sholapur, Upper Sindh Frontier, Karachi, Hydarabad, Shikarpur, and Thar Parkar. The Native states were under the supervision of British political officer, and were divided into 16 agencies, viz., Baroda, Kachh, Kathiawar, Kaira, Surat, Sholapur, Satara, Kolhapur, South Marhatha Country, Rewkanta, Mahikanta, Pahlanpur, Sawantwadi, Tanna, Colaba, and Dharwar. The Presidency also included Daman, Diu, and Goa under . Portuguese rule. After Indian independence in 1947, the former princely Gujarat states and the Deccan states were merged with the former Bombay province which was renamed as the State of Bombay.
The State of Bombay was significantly enlarged on November 1, 1956 expanding eastward to incorporate the Marathi-speaking Marathwada region of Hyderabad State, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region of southern Madhya Pradesh and Gujarati-speaking Saurashtra & Kutch. The southernmost, Kannada-speaking portion of the state became part of the new linguistic state of Karnataka. The state was being referred to by the local inhabitants as Maha Dwibhashi Rajya, literally, the great bilingual state.
The state was home to both Marathi and Gujarati linguistic movements, both seeking to create separate linguistic states. The Mahagujarat movement in Gujarat was led by Shri Indubhai Yagnik. On May 1, 1960, after a movement for a separate Marathi state turned violent, the State of Bombay was partitioned into the States of Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Sunday, April 20, 2008

Quit India Movement

View:- Quit India Movement
On July 14, 1942, the Indian National Congress passed a resolution demanding complete independence from Britain. The draft proposed that if the British did not accede to the demands, massive civil disobedience would be launched.
However, it proved to be controversial within the party. A prominent Congress national leader Chakravarti Rajgopalachari quit the Congress over this decision, and so did some local and regional level organizers. Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Azad were apprehensive and critical of the call, but backed it and stuck with Gandhi's leadership till the end. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Dr. Rajendra Prasad were openly and enthusiastically in favor of such a disobedience movement, as were many veteran Gandhians and socialists like Ashok Mehta and JayPrakash Narayan.
The Congress had lesser success in rallying other political forces under a single flag and mast. Smaller parties like the Communist Party of India and the Hindu Mahasabha opposed the call. Muhammad Ali Jinnah's opposition to the call led to large numbers of Muslims cooperating with the British, and the Muslim League obtaining power in the Imperial provincial governments.
On August 8, 1942 the Quit India Resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee (AICC). At Gowalia Tank, Bombay (now known as August Kranti Maidan), Gandhi told Indians to follow non-violent civil disobedience. He told the masses to act as an independent nation. His call found support among a large number of Indians.

Tuesday, April 15, 2008

Hornby Vellard

The Hornby Vellard was a project to build a causeway uniting all seven islands of Bombay into a single island with a deep natural harbour. The project was started by the governor William Hornby in 1782 and all islands were linked by 1838. The word vellard appears to be a local corruption of the Portuguese word vallado meaning fence or embankment.
It was completed in 1784 was one of the first major civil engineering projects which transformed the original seven islands of Bombay into one island. Work on the vellard was started in 1782 by William Hornby, then Governor of Bombay, against the wishes of the directors of the East India Company.
The purpose of this vellard was to block the Worli creek and prevent the low-lying areas of Bombay from being flooded at high tide. The cost was estimated at about Rs. 100,000.
According to some accounts, Hornby ordered the work to be started after the East India Company turned down his proposal; and continued as Governor till the end of his term in 1784, ignoring the suspension notice sent to him.
One story of the origin of the Mahalaxmi Temple links it to a vision of a statue of Laxmi in the sea. The chief engineer dreamed of the statue following multiple collapses of the sea-wall; recovered it, and built the temple as an offering for safe construction of the vellard.

Bangaga Tank

view of Banganga Tank

Banganga or Banganga Tank is an ancient water tank which is part of the Walkeshwar Temple Complex in Malabar Hill area of Mumbai.
The Tank was built in the 1127 AD, by Lakshman Prabhu, a minister in the court of Silhara dynasty kings in Thane.The tank was rebuilt in 1715 AD, out of a donation for the Walkeshwar temple by Rama Kamath. The main temple has been reconstructed since then and is at present a reinforced concrete structure of recent construction.
According to local legend, it sprang forth when the Hindu god Ram, the exiled hero of the epic Ramayana, stopped at the spot five thousand years ago in search of his kidnapped wife Sita.
As the legend goes, overcome with fatigue and thirst, Rama asked his brother Laxman to bring him some water. Laxman instantly shot an arrow into the ground, and water gushed forth from the ground, creating a tributary of the Ganges, which flows over a thousand miles away, hence its name, Banganga, the 'Ganga' created out on a 'Baan' (Arrow).
The Banganga also houses the 'Shri Kashi Math' of the Goud Saraswat Brahmins at its banks and samadhis of their various past heads of the Math.
The area also has a Hindu cremation ground which after 2003, received a makeover to house a Gas crematorium.
The area still has an old Hindu cemetery consisting of samadhi shrines of various Advaita gurus, such as Sri Ranjit Maharaj (1913-2000) and his guru Sri Siddarameshwar Maharaj (1888-1936).

Elephanta island

View of Elephanta caves

Elephanta Island (also called Gharapuri Island or place of caves) is one of a number of islands in Mumbai Harbour, east Mumbai. This island is a popular tourist destination for a day trip because of the island's cave temples and the Elephanta Caves that have been carved out in the rock.
The island is easily accessible by ferry from Mumbai, being about 10 km from the south east coast of the island city. Boats leave daily from the Gateway of India, taking about an hour each way for the journey. From the boat landing stage on the island, a walkway leads to steps that go up to the famous caves. Along the path, hawkers sell souvenirs that may bought at a reasonable price. There are also stalls to buy food and drinks.
Known in ancient times as Gharapuri, the present name Elephanta, was given by 17th century Portuguese explorers, after seeing a monolithic basalt sculpture of an elephant found here near the entrance. They decided to take it home but ended up dropping it into the sea because their chains where not strong enough. Later, this sculpture was moved to the Victoria and Albert Museum (now Dr Bhau Daji lad Museum) in Mumbai by the British.
The island has an area of 16 km² (6 sq miles). It is located at approximately 18.95° N 72.93° E. The area comes under the jurisdiction of the Taluka:- Uran, District:- Raigad near Mumbai.
A narrow gauge train takes tourists along the 1 km pier to the base of the steps that lead to the caves.
The island is thickly wooded with palm, mango, and tamarind trees. The island has a population of about 1,200 involved in growing rice, fishing, and repairing boats. It was once the capital of a powerful local kingdom.
There are total three villages viz; Shentbandar, Morabandar, and Rajbandar, of which Rajbandar is known to be the capital. Caves and Stalls can be seen in Shentbandar. Morabandar has thick forest.
The most important sculpture is that of Trimurti Sadasiva, carved in relief at the end of the N-S axis. The image, 20 ft in height is of the three headed-Shiva, representing Panchamukha Shiva. The right half-face shows him as a young person with sensuous lips, embodying life and its vitality. In his hand he holds something that resembles a rose bud -- again with the promise of life and creativity. It is this face that is closest to that of Brahma, the creator of the universe according to the Hindu belief, Uma or Kamdev, the feminine side of Shiva. The left half-face face on the side is that of a young man. It is moustached, and displays anger. This is Shiva as Aghori Bhairava, the one whose anger can engulf the entire world in flames leaving only ashes behind. This is Shiva, the Destroyer. The central face, benign, meditative, as the preserver Vishnu. This is Shiva as the yogi -- Yogeshwar -- in deep meditation praying for the 'preservation' of humanity.
One of the most routine provision of electricity across the island. Electricity is supplied only between 7pm to 11pm

Silhara Dynasty

walkeshwar Temple alongside Banganga Tank

built by Chittaraj, King of Silhar dynasty

The Hindu Silhara dynasty ruled the region around present-day Mumbai between 810 and 1240.
They were split into three branches:- one branch ruled North Konkan, the second South Konkan (between 765 to 1029), while the third ruled what is now known as modern districts of Satara, Kolhapur and Belgaon between 940 to 1215 after which they were overwhelmed by the Chalukya.
The dynasty originally began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the 8th and 10th centuries. Govinda II, a Rashtrakuta king, conferred the kingdom of North Konkan (modern districts of Thane, Mumbai and Raigad) on Kapardin (In Sanskrit:- Wearing the kaparda, a peculiar braid or knot of hair - also a term for Hindu god Shiva) I, founder of the Northern Silhara family, around 800. Since then North Konkan came to be known as Kapardi-dvipa or Kavadidvipa. The capital of this branch was Puri, now known as Rajapur in the Ratnagiri District.
The dynasty bore the title of Tagara-puradhishvara, which indicates that they originally hailed from Tagara.
Around 1343 the island of Selsette, and eventually the whole archipelago, passed to the Muzaffarid dynasty.
Shilaharas of Southern Maharashtra at Kolhapur was the latest of the three and was founded about the time of downfall of the Rashtrakuta Empire.

The Walkeshwar temple and the Banganga Tank were built during the reign of Chittaraja, a king of this dynasty.

Emperor Asoka, the Great

Emblem of India
originally erected by Asoka

Asoka the Great
Mauryan Emperor

Modern reconstruction of Asoka's portrait
Reign:-273 BC-232 BC
Full name:-Asoka Maurya
Born:-304 BC
Birthplace:-Pataliputra (now known as Patna, Capital City of State of Bihar, India)
Mother:-Rani Dharma
Consort:-Maharani Devi
Wives:- Rani Tishyaraksha, Rani Padmavati and Rani Kaurwaki
Royal House:-Mauryan dynasty
Died:-232 BC
Place of death:-Pataliputra
Death ritual :-Ashes immersed in Ganges River, possibly at Varanasi
Successor:-Dasaratha Maurya


Images of Gautam Budhha

Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion or way of life. One point of view says it is a philosopy influenced by the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, later known as Gautam Buddha. Another point of view says it is teachings to guide one to directly experiencing reality. Many scholars regard it as a plurality rather than a single entity. Buddhism is also known as Buddha Dharma or Dhamma which roughly means the "teachings of the Awakened One" in Sanskrit and Pali languages of ancient Buddhist texts. Buddhism began around the 5th century BCE with the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama commonly referred to as "the Buddha".

History and origin
Gautama whose personal name was Siddhartha. He was born in the city of Lumbini and raised in Kapilavastl The traditional story of his life is as follows, however, little of this can be regarded as established historical fact. Siddhartha's father, King Suddhodana, was said to have been visited by a wise man shortly after Siddhartha was born. The wise man said that Siddhartha would either become a great emperor (chakravartin) or a holy man (Sadhu). Determined to make Siddhartha a king, the father tried to shield his son from the unpleasant realities of daily life. Despite his father's efforts, at the age of 29, he discovered the suffering of his people, first through an encounter with an elderly man. On subsequent trips outside the palace, he encountered various sufferings such as a diseased man, a decaying corpse, and an ascetic. These are often termed 'The Four Sights.'

Gautama was deeply depressed by these four sights and sought to overcome old age, illness, and death by living the life of an ascetic. Gautama escaped his palace, leaving behind this royal life to become a mendicant. For a time on his spiritual quest, Buddha "experimented with extreme asceticism which at that time was seen as a powerful spiritual practice...such as fasting, holding the breath and exposure of the body to pain...he found, however, that these ascetic practices brought no genuine spiritual benefits and in fact, being based on self-hatred, that they were counterproductive. "After abandoning asceticism and concentrating instead upon meditation and, according to some sources, Anapanasati (awareness of breathing in and out), Gautama is said to have discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way—a path of moderation that lies mid-way between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. He accepted a little milk and rice pudding from a village girl and then, sitting under a pipal tree or Sacred fig (Ficus religiosa), also known as the Bodhi tree, in Bodh Gaya, he vowed never to arise until he had found the Truth. His five companions, believing that he had abandoned his search and become undisciplined, left. After 49 days meditating, at the age of 35, he attained bodhi, also known as "Awakening" or "Enlightenment" in the West. After his attainment of bodhi he was known as Buddha or Gautam Buddha and spent the rest of his life teaching his insights (Dharma). According to scholars, he lived around the fifth century BCE, but his more exact birthdate is nor correcly known. He died at the age of 80 in Kushinagara (Pali Kusinara) (India).

Maurya Dynasty

The Maurya Empire at its largest
extent under "Ashoka" the Great.

Existed:-322–185 Before Christ Era(BCE)
Area:-5 million kms² (Southern Asia and the parts of Central Asia)
Population:- 50 million (one third of the world population)
Imperial Symbol:The Lion
Founder:-Chandragupta Maurya
Preceding Statesman:-Nanda Dynasty of MagadhaMahajanapadas
Languages:-Pali, Prakrit and Sanskrit
Religions:-Budhism, Hinduism and Jainism
Currency:-Silver Ingots (Panas)
Head of the State:-Samraat (Emperor)
First Emperor:-Chandragupta Maurya
Last Emperor :-Brhadrata
Government:-Centralized Absolute Monarchy with Divine Right of Kings
Divisions :- 4 provinces:Tosali, Ujjain, Suvarnagiri andTaxila Semi-independent tribes
Administration:-Inner Council of Ministers (Mantriparishad) under a Mahamantri with a larger assembly of ministers (Mantrinomantriparisadamca). The Extensive network under the officials from treasurers (Sannidhatas) to collectors (Samahartas) and clerks (Karmikas).Provincial administration under regional viceroys (Kumara or Aryaputra) with their own Mantriparishads and supervisory officials (Mahamattas). The Provinces divided into districts were run by lower officials and similar stratification down to individual villages run by headmen and supervised by Imperial officials (Gopas).
Dissolution:- Military coup by Pusyamitra Sunga
Succeeding state:- Sunga Empire

A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India.
The National Emblem of India is derived from the time of the Emperor "samudragupta." The emblem is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Lion Capital was erected in the third century BC by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emanicipation to the four quarters of the universe. The national emblem is thus symbolic of contemporary India’s reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to world peace and goodwill. The four lions(one hidden from view ) – symbolising power, courage and confidence- rest on a circular abacus. The abacus is girded by four smaller animals- Guardians of the four directions: The Lion of the North, The Elephant of the East, The Horse of the South and The Bull of the West . The abacus rests on a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration.
The motto ‘Satyameva Jayate’ inscribed below the emblem in Devanagari script means ‘truth alone triumphs’is from Mundaka Upanishad.

Wednesday, April 9, 2008

History of Mumbai

The city of Mumbai was originally consisted of seven islands, namely Colaba, Mazagaon, Old Woman's Island, Wadala, Mahim, Parel, and Matunga-Sion (salset islands). These seven islands were on the west coast of India. The people then residing on these islands were depended on fishing and hunting. They were using the arms made of stone. The artefacts found Kandivali in northern Mumbai indicate that these islands had been inhabited since the Stone Age. The inhabitaion on these seven islands was the result of the migration of the people of Dravid Community from South India whose main profession was fishing. They are now known as Kolis (fishermen). Accordingly, some of the people from Gujarat also migrated to these seven islands for fishing. These people from Gujarat were known as Macchalimar. The people migrated from south India brought with them their godess Mumba Aai. The name of Mumbai is derived from the name of this godess "Mumba Aai." Gradually, on this western Coast-land, the culture of Aryans started expanding. The king named Bimb then ruling these islands constructed Prabhadevi Temple in 1322. The documented evidence of human habitation dates back to 250 BC. In the 3rd century BC, these islands formed part of the Empire of the Maurya Dynasty and ruled by the Indian Buddhist emperor, Ashoka, the Great. The Hindu rulers of the Silhara Dynasty later governed the islands until 1343, when the kingdom of Gujarat annexed them. Some of the oldest edifices of the archipelago – the Elephanta island and the Walkeshwar Temple Complex date from this era. In the year 1343, the Mohammedans of Gujarat took possession and the Kings of the province of Gujarat, India, ruled untill 1534. The only vestige (mark) of their dominion over these islands are found on the mosque at Mahim. In 1534 the Portuguese took over Mumbai by force of arms from the Mohammedans and ruled Mumbai till 1661. This led to the establishment of numerous churches which were constructed in the areas where the majority of people were Roman Catholics. There used to be two areas in Mumbai called "Portuguese Church" and "St. Andrew's Church at Bandra. However, Portuguese-style facade still remains only with St. Andrew's Church at Bandra. The Portuguese also fortified their possession by building forts at Sion, Mahim, Bandra, and Bassien which, although in very dilapidated condition, can still be seen. They named their new possession as "Bom Baia" which in Portuguese means "Good Bay". A hundred and twenty-eight years later, the islands were given to the English King Charles II in dowry on his marriage to Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza in 1662. In the year 1668 the islands were acquired by the English East India Company on lease from the crown for an annual sum of 10 pounds in gold; so little did the British value these islands at that time. The Company, which was operating from Surat, was in search for another deeper water port so that larger vessels could dock and found the islands of Bombay suitable for development. The shifting of the East India Company's headquarters to Bombay in 1687 led to the collapse of Surat as a principal trading center. The company found the deep harbour on the east coast of the islands to be ideal for setting up their first port in the sub-continent. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661 to 60,000 in 1675. The British corrupted the Portuguese name "Bom Baia" to "Bombay". The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency. From 1817 onwards, the city was reshaped with large civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands into a single amalgamated mass. This project, known as the Hornby Vellard, was completed by 1845 and resulted in the total area swelling to 438 kms². It was then really enjoyable to see on foot these seven amalgamated islands. Applo-gate, Churchgate and Bazar-gate were inside the wall of the fort. On eastern side of the fort was docks area and on the western side were Girgaum Chowpati, malabar hill and Mazgaon hill. The Worli, Mazgaon, Sewri and Wadala had small sized forts whereas Sion and Mahim had large sized forts. In 1853, India's first passenger Mumbai Suburban Railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the southenward adjacent town Thane. The first clothe mill in India started in Mumbai in1854. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy and subsequently, enhancing the city's stature. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea.
Mumbai(then known as Bombay) was a major base for the Indian independence movement, with the Quit India Movement called by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942 being its most rubric event. After India's independence in 1947, it became the capital of Bombay State (refer to Bombay Presidency). Till independence of India, most of the people in Mumbai had a traditional costume of Dhoti, Sadra, black coat and white gandhi or black round cap. The people engaged in clerical jobs were mostly staying in chawl system with common toilets and water-taps. In the 1950 the city expanded to its present limits by incorporating parts of Salsette island which lay to the north.
After 1955, when the Bombay State was being re-organised along linguistic lines into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, there was a demand that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. However, the Sanyukta Maharashtra Samiti opposed this, and insisted that Mumbai be declared the capital of Maharashtra. Following a successful protests in which 105 people were killed by police firing, Maharashtra state was formed with Mumbai as its capital on May 1, 1960.
Flora Foutain was renamed Hutatma Chowk, or "Martyr's Square," as a memorial to the Sanyukta Maharashtra Movement
The local fisher communities (locally being called Kolis) used to call the islands "Mumba" after Mumbadevi, the Hindu deity.
When India became independent on 15th August, 1947, the Mumbai had a 3 million (30 lacs) population which grew beyond 1 crore, 30 lacs in 2007. The reason of such fast growth of population of Mumbai was due to the availability of electricity, employment, self-employment, water and transport comparatively with the other parts in India. This population growth resulted into joining suburban area to the main Mumbai. In the recent past, the Mumbai has been converted into Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). Despite the encroachment of the large number of people from other states in India, Mumbai still has 65% majority population of Marathi speaking community. The feature of Mumbai is that it is the only city in India where with Marathi language, the other laguages like English Gujarathi, Malyalam, Telgu and Hindi are spoken at large scale.
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